EU trade policy, types of trade agreements, status of trade negotiations, research of international trade policies. The central pillar of rules-based and open trade should always be the WTO. This is the first and best way to open markets around the world and establish new rules for trade. However, free trade agreements can be – and have been for years – a useful complement to the multilateral trade order. In the context of the WTO crisis, these agreements are increasingly economically and politically relevant, which is essential for the EU`s foreign trade policy. The Trade Relations Division (TRD) is responsible for the research, negotiation and implementation of preferential trade agreements with third countries around the world (declarations of cooperation, free trade agreements). There are bilateral trade agreements between two parties. It allows access to the parties` various markets, allows for economic growth and reduces trade barriers, such as tariffs and import quotas. The reasons why Switzerland is concerned about the ECJ`s trade guidelines in the East are now being developed by the EU to conclude free trade agreements so that they remain within exclusive EU jurisdiction.

Therefore, areas such as investor-state dispute settlement and portfolio investments must be negotiated in the case of separate agreements. This clear division of the domains into different agreements makes it possible for European legislators to ratify and enforce free trade agreements quickly and reliably. However, such a separation is not possible if trade agreements are an integral part of political association agreements (for example. B with Ukraine, Mexico, Mercosur, etc.). These contracts remain mixed, if only because of the foreign and security policy components (the EU negotiations with Mercosur are based on a 20-year term and do not involve the settlement of investor-state disputes). Trade with Japan represents only 2% of the UK`s total volume, so the government expects the agreement to contribute 0.07% of GDP in the long term. The EFTA Free Trade Agreement covers trade in industrial products (including fish) and agricultural products. These include provisions for the establishment of a joint committee, dispute resolution, rules of origin and trade, as well as competition and the protection of intellectual property rights. To date, more than 20 of these existing agreements, covering 50 countries or territories, have been shaken up with the exception of the I.V. and will begin on 1 January 2021. Based on 2018 figures, this represents about 8% of total trade in the UK. But it is clear that new agreements with some countries will not be ready in time.

Many of the EU`s trade agreements are still being ratified and are only being implemented temporarily.