In a fourth case, the consequences of incapacity to work are more dramatic. Although the Crown Proceedings Act of 1947 allowed the government or state fumes to be sued on contracts in the same way as an ordinary person, where the law gives a public body the power to perform certain acts, the acts of representatives that go beyond that power will be ultra vires and non-abundant. The result is the same as for companies before the 1989 reform, so that entire chains of agreements could be declared non-existent. Increasingly, the English law on good contractual deals was influenced by its commercial relations with Northern Europe, especially since the Magna Carta 1215 had guaranteed merchants a “safe” exit and entry into England “for the purchase and sale by the old rights and customs of all the wrong tolls”. [7] In 1266, King Henry III had given the Hanseatics a charter for trade in England. The “Easterlings” who came with boats brought goods and money that the English called “Sterling”[8] and standard rules for trade that formed a lex mercatoria, the laws of merchants. The custom of merchants was most influential in coastal trading ports such as London, Boston, Hull and King`s Lynn. While the courts opposed trade restrictions, a doctrine of reflection was formed, so that something valuable had to be passed on to enforce each commitment. [9] Some courts remained skeptical that damages could only be awarded for a broken contract (this was not a sealed covenant). [10] Other disputes have resolved this situation. In Shepton v Doge,[11] an accused had agreed to London, where municipal courts used to allow unsealed claims to sell 28 hectares of land in Hoxton.

Although the house itself was outside London at that time, a claim for deception was granted to Middlesex, but essentially on an omission of mediation from the country. The consideration is an additional requirement in English law before a contract is applicable. [97] A person who wants to impose an agreement must prove that he or she has brought into the good business something that has “something valuable in the eyes of the law,” either by giving an advantage to another person or by harming his or her claim. [98] In practice, this does not mean simple gratitude or love,[99] does not mean anything that has already been done in the past, and does not promise to fulfill a pre-existing duty, unless the accomplishment takes place for a third party. [100] Metaphorically, reflection is “the price for which the promise is bought.” [101] It is controversial that it leads to a complexity that legal systems that do not remove their inheritance from English law simply do not have. [102] In reality, the doctrine of consideration operates to a very small extent and creates little difficulty in business practices. After the reform in the United States,[103] in particular, treaty revision 90, which allows all promises to engage if they result in “injustice,” a report by the Law Revision Committee, the Statute of Fraud and the Doctrine of Consideration[104] suggested that the poor payment of debts promises in writing, and promising to meet existing obligations. who promises to keep an offer open and the promises on which another relies to their detriment should be binding. The report was never translated into legislation, but almost all of its recommendations were transposed by case law,[105] albeit with difficulty. In a limited number of cases, an agreement is not applicable unless it is consistent with a specified legal form. While contracts can generally be concluded without formalities, it is assumed that some transactions require form, either because it causes a person to think carefully before committing to an agreement, or only as clear evidence.

[90] This generally applies to large commitments, including the sale of land,[91] of a lease of real estate for more than three years[92] of a consumer credit contract[93] and a change. [94] A guarantee contract must also be